Jun 2017 Update: Our final target of opportunity comet, C/2017 K2, has been selected.

Aug 2016 Update: The survey, originally spanning Feb 2015 to Sep 2016, has been extended to Sep 2018. Target lists and observations have been updated.

Table of contents

Observing comet gas with Spitzer

Comet Siding Spring, IRAC, 3.6 and 4.5 μm color       combination

A color combination of IRAC images of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) from March 2014: blue-white corresponds to dust, red-orange to gas. Comet Siding Spring passed Mars at the extremely close distance of 141,000 km in October 2014. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kelley (Univ. Maryland)

The Spitzer Space Telescope is an infrared optimized observatory in orbit around the Sun. Initially, the observatory carried liquid helium to cool the telescope and its instruments. The last of the helium was exhausted in 2009, and the telescope has since been passively cooled. Most of the instruments are too warm to operate, but the shortest wavelength filters of one camera, the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), can still observe with sensitivities far exceeding what is possible from current ground-based observatories. Fortunately for us, these wavelengths cover an important region for comet science.

The two currently operating IRAC filters are centered at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, well into the infrared regime of light. Observations of comets with the 3.6 μm filter are dominated by light originating from the dust, whereas the 4.5 μm filter covers both dust and emission bands from two gases: carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. An example of a comet observed with these two filters is shown in an accompanying figure. A prominent dust tail and a diffuse gas coma are easily seen.

IRAC simultaneously captures both gas emission bands in a single filter. Care must be taken when interpreting these images and attributing the gas coma to either species. Molecule-for-molecule, carbon dioxide's 4.26 μm emission band is 10 times stronger than carbon monoxide's 4.67 μm emission band. Comets typically produce the two gases at about the same rates, and we can usually assume a gas coma observed by Spitzer/IRAC is dominated by carbon dioxide. However, this is not strictly true. We have seen some comets with carbon monoxide production rates far exceeding that of carbon dioxide. Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 is a notable example [1].

A survey of comets

Starting in 2015, my team and I are surveying comets with Spitzer to measure their carbon dioxide production rates over month-to-year timescales. With these data, and additional observations from other telescopes, we aim to quantify the role of carbon dioxide in comet mass loss. Details on our project are below and will be updated as the survey progresses.


CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets

A Spitzer Space Telescope survey for cycle 11, Feb 2015 to Sep 2016 cycles 11 and 13, Feb 2015 to Sep 2018.

Team

  • Mike Kelley (PI), University of Maryland, College Park
  • Dennis Bodewits, University of Maryland, College Park
  • Lori Feaga, University of Maryland, College Park
  • Colin Snodgrass, Open University, UK
  • Adam McKay, University of Texas, Austin
  • Diane Wooden, NASA Ames Research Center
  • Matthew Knight, Lowell Observatory

Abstract

Spacecraft missions to comets return a treasure trove of details of their targets, e.g., the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Deep Impact experiment at comet 9P/Tempel 1, or even the flyby of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) at Mars. Yet, missions are rare, the diversity of comets is large, few comets are easily accessible, and comet flybys essentially return snapshots of their target nuclei. Thus, telescopic observations are necessary to place the mission data within the context of each comet's long-term behavior, and to further connect mission results to the comet population as a whole. We propose a large Cycle 11 project to study the long-term activity of past and potential future mission targets, and select bright Oort cloud comets to infer comet nucleus properties, which would otherwise require flyby missions. In the classical comet model, cometary mass loss is driven by the sublimation of water ice. However, recent discoveries suggest that the more volatile CO and CO2 ices are the likely drivers of some comet active regions. Surprisingly, CO2 drove most of the activity of comet Hartley 2 at only 1 AU from the Sun where vigorous water ice sublimation would be expected to dominate. Currently, little is known about the role of CO2 in comet activity because telluric absorptions prohibit monitoring from the ground. In our Cycle 11 project, we will study the CO2 activity of our targets through IRAC photometry. In conjunction with prior observations of CO2 and CO, as well as future data sets (JWST) and ongoing Earth-based projects led by members of our team, we will investigate both long-term activity trends in our target comets, with a particular goal to ascertain the connections between each comet's coma and nucleus.

Targets

Target list.
Comet Nobs rmin rmax Class P

(yr)
q

(AU)
Qmax

(x1028/s)
Notes
Class: ET = Encke-type, JF = Jupiter-family, HF = Halley-family, DN = dynamically new Oort cloud, LP = long period Oort Cloud. P = orbital period. q = perihelion distance. Qmax = estimated maximum water production rate [2,3,4,5].
2P/Encke 14 -4.1 3.9 ET 3.3 0.3 5 Seasonal jet activity [6].
6P/d'Arrest 3 3.1 3.9 JF 6.7 1.4 0.4
9P/Tempel 1 19 -4.0 3.7 JF 5.6 1.5 2 Activity peaks pre-perihelion [7].
10P/Tempel 2 16 -2.2 3.5 JF 5.4 1.4 0.2 Strong seasonal jet [8].
15P/Finlay 5 2.0 2.4 JF 6.5 1.0 0.4
19P/Borrelly 6 -1.8 4.2 JF 6.8 1.3 2 Strong seasonal jet [9].
22P/Kopff 17 -2.3 4.2 JF 6.4 1.6 4 Strong seasonal production [10].
46P/Wirtanen 2 -4.2 -3.5 JF 6.4 1.2 0.4 Activity peaks post-perihelion [11].
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko 6 -3.9 3.9 JF 6.4 1.2 0.4 Activity peaks post-perihelion [11].
71P/Clark 12 -4.6 2.6 JF 5.5 1.6 1
73P/Schwassman-Wachmann 3 C 7 -4.8 2.1 JF 5.4 0.9 2 Fragmented in 1995.
73P/Schwassman-Wachmann 3 B 1 2.1 2.1 JF 5.4 0.9 2 Fragmented in 1995.
81P/Wild 2 16 -3.9 3.5 JF 6.4 1.6 1 Seasonal asymmetry [12].
88P/Howell 7 2.6 4.4 JF 5.5 1.4 1 Strong CO2-rich jets. [1, 13].
103P/Hartley 2 8 -5.2 -1.6 JF 6.5 1.1 1
C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) 7 2.6 8.0 DN 1.1 7
C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) 8 3.0 6.9 DN 1.4 1 Mars-flyby comet.
C/2013 US10 (Catalina) 13 -4.0 6.5 DN 0.8 10
C/2013 X1 (PanSTARRS) 13 -4.4 6.0 LP 1.3 10
C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) 11 1.3 7.1 LP 1.3 3
C/2014 Q3 (Borisov) 2 3.1 4.0 HF 151 1.6 0.3
C/2015 V2 (Johnson) 20 -5.5 3.4 DN 1.6 15
C/2015 VL62 (Lemmon-Yeung-PanSTARRS) 8 -5.5 4.1 DN 2.7 0.5
C/2016 M1 (PanSTARRS) 10 -6.7 2.3 LP 2.2
C/2017 K2 (PanSTARRS) 3 -15.5 -13.7

Spitzer Observations

Spitzer observation log.
CometWindow (UT)Length (days)Observed (UT)Statusrh (AU)tint (s)
2P/Encke2015 Feb 01132015 Feb 10Good3.913300
2P/Encke2015 Sep 10202015 Sep 12Good-4.073300
2P/Encke2016 Feb 01392016 Mar 08Good-3.673300
2P/Encke2016 Nov 0372016 Nov 07Good-2.06210
2P/Encke2016 Nov 1382016 Nov 14Good-1.98210
2P/Encke2016 Nov 2472016 Nov 26Good-1.8484
2P/Encke2016 Dec 0482016 Dec 05Good-1.7484
2P/Encke2016 Dec 1572016 Dec 19Good-1.5684
2P/Encke2016 Dec 2572016 Dec 28Good-1.4584
2P/Encke2017 Jan 0482017 Jan 04Good-1.3584
2P/Encke2017 Jan 15102017 Jan 15Good-1.1984
2P/Encke2017 Sep 04102017 Sep 07Good2.62700
2P/Encke2017 Sep 17102017 Sep 17OK2.68700
2P/Encke2017 Sep 30132017 Oct 07Good2.83700
6P/d'Arrest2015 Dec 23202015 Dec 25Good3.1500
6P/d'Arrest2016 Jan 15222016 Jan 16Good3.24500
6P/d'Arrest2016 May 17212016 May 17Good3.93300
9P/Tempel 12015 Feb 01132015 Feb 08Good-3.97500
9P/Tempel 12015 May 31182015 Jun 02Good-3.53500
9P/Tempel 12015 Jun 21202015 Jun 28Good-3.41500
9P/Tempel 12016 May 1872016 May 21Good-1.760
9P/Tempel 12016 May 2882016 May 28Good-1.6760
9P/Tempel 12016 Jun 0872016 Jun 10Good-1.6360
9P/Tempel 12016 Jun 1872016 Jun 19Good-1.5960
9P/Tempel 12016 Jun 2882016 Jun 28Good-1.5860
9P/Tempel 12016 Jul 0972016 Jul 10OK-1.5660
9P/Tempel 12016 Jul 1972016 Jul 22Good-1.5560
9P/Tempel 12016 Jul 2982016 Jul 29Good-1.5460
9P/Tempel 12016 Aug 09102016 Aug 09Good1.5460
9P/Tempel 12016 Dec 2682016 Dec 27Good2.06210
9P/Tempel 12017 Jan 0672017 Jan 07Good2.12210
9P/Tempel 12017 Jan 1682017 Jan 16Good2.17700
9P/Tempel 12017 Jan 2782017 Jan 30Good2.25700
9P/Tempel 12017 Feb 0772017 Feb 08Good2.3700
9P/Tempel 12017 Feb 17112017 Feb 18Good2.37700
9P/Tempel 12017 Nov 08222017 Nov 13Scheduled3.675600
10P/Tempel 22015 May 2182015 May 26Good-2.18500
10P/Tempel 22015 Jun 0192015 Jun 02Good-2.14500
10P/Tempel 22015 Jun 1382015 Jun 18Good-2.03150
10P/Tempel 22015 Jun 2482015 Jun 27Good-1.98150
10P/Tempel 22015 Jul 0592015 Jul 05Good-1.94150
10P/Tempel 22015 Jul 17112015 Jul 19Good-1.8560
10P/Tempel 22016 Jan 0282016 Jan 02Good1.5160
10P/Tempel 22016 Jan 1382016 Jan 14Good1.5660
10P/Tempel 22016 Jan 2482016 Jan 30Good1.6360
10P/Tempel 22016 Feb 0482016 Feb 07Good1.6760
10P/Tempel 22016 Feb 1572016 Feb 15Good1.7160
10P/Tempel 22016 Feb 2582016 Feb 26Good1.7760
10P/Tempel 22016 Mar 0782016 Mar 08Good1.83150
10P/Tempel 22016 Mar 1882016 Mar 20Good1.91150
10P/Tempel 22016 Mar 29112016 Apr 02Good2150
10P/Tempel 22017 Jan 09222017 Jan 12Good3.565600
15P/Finlay2015 May 0582015 May 11Good2.01500
15P/Finlay2015 May 1692015 May 16Good2.05500
15P/Finlay2015 May 2882015 May 28Good2.16500
15P/Finlay2015 Jun 0892015 Jun 11Good2.27500
15P/Finlay2015 Jun 20112015 Jun 21Good2.37500
19P/Borrelly2015 Feb 0182015 Feb 07Good-1.8360
19P/Borrelly2015 Feb 12102015 Feb 12Good-1.7960
19P/Borrelly2016 Apr 23212016 May 11Good3.3500
19P/Borrelly2016 May 17232016 May 17Good3.5500
19P/Borrelly2016 Sep 11192016 Sep 11Good4.113300
19P/Borrelly2016 Oct 06232016 Oct 11Good4.255600
22P/Kopff2015 Feb 06112016 Feb 08Good1.88160
22P/Kopff2015 Apr 2572015 Apr 30Good-2.28150
22P/Kopff2015 May 0572015 May 08Good-2.2460
22P/Kopff2015 May 1572015 May 16Good-2.1960
22P/Kopff2015 May 2572015 May 26Good-2.1360
22P/Kopff2015 Jun 0472015 Jun 04Good-2.0860
22P/Kopff2015 Jun 14102015 Jun 18Good-260
22P/Kopff2015 Nov 1382015 Nov 15Good1.5760
22P/Kopff2015 Nov 2472015 Nov 25Good1.5960
22P/Kopff2015 Dec 1582015 Dec 15Good1.6460
22P/Kopff2015 Dec 2672015 Dec 26Good1.6860
22P/Kopff2016 Jan 0582016 Jan 06Good1.7260
22P/Kopff2016 Jan 1682016 Jan 16Good1.7760
22P/Kopff2016 Jan 2772016 Jan 30Good1.8360
22P/Kopff2016 Feb 06112016 Feb 07Good1.87560
22P/Kopff2016 Nov 27222016 Dec 03Good3.575600
22P/Kopff2017 Apr 27212017 May 16Good4.275600
46P/Wirtanen2017 Jul 26222017 Jul 31Unknown-4.185600
46P/Wirtanen2017 Dec 2221-3.55600
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016 Apr 0772016 Apr 08Good2.76500
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016 Apr 1782016 Apr 17Good2.82500
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016 Apr 2872016 Apr 30Good2.91500
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016 May 08102016 May 08Good2.96500
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016 Aug 30312016 Sep 06Good3.7900
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2017 May 16382017 Jun 17Good4.815600
71P/Clark2015 Feb 0152015 Feb 01NonD-4.633300
71P/Clark2015 May 24202015 May 25NonD-4.483300
71P/Clark2016 Feb 11222016 Feb 22Good-3.763300
71P/Clark2016 Jul 07182016 Jul 10Good-3.2500
71P/Clark2016 Jul 28212016 Jul 28Good-3.09500
71P/Clark2017 Sep 1272017 Sep 16Good1.75210
71P/Clark2017 Sep 2272017 Sep 22Good1.78210
71P/Clark2017 Oct 0272017 Oct 07Good1.84210
71P/Clark2017 Oct 1272017 Oct 13Good1.87700
71P/Clark2017 Oct 2272017 Oct 24Good1.92700
71P/Clark2017 Nov 01102017 Nov 04Scheduled1.96700
71P/Clark2018 Feb 28102.65600
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2015 May 24392015 May 25NonD-4.796500
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2016 Feb 04212016 Feb 15Unknown-3.773300
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2016 Jun 2672016 Jun 26Good-2.98500
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2016 Jul 0682016 Jul 06Good-2.91500
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2016 Jul 1772016 Jul 17Good-2.83500
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2016 Jul 27102016 Jul 28Good-2.75500
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2017 Nov 30202017 Dec 06Scheduled2.945600
81P/Wild 22015 Mar 21172015 Mar 23Good-3.91900
81P/Wild 22015 Apr 10202015 Apr 24Good-3.77900
81P/Wild 22016 Jan 1472016 Jan 16Good-2.34150
81P/Wild 22016 Jan 2472016 Jan 29Good-2.26150
81P/Wild 22016 Feb 0382016 Feb 07Good-2.21150
81P/Wild 22016 Feb 1472016 Feb 14Good-2.16150
81P/Wild 22016 Feb 2472016 Feb 26Good-2.160
81P/Wild 22016 Mar 05102016 Mar 08Good-2.0460
81P/Wild 22016 Jul 2392016 Jul 24Good1.5960
81P/Wild 22016 Aug 0482016 Aug 06Good1.660
81P/Wild 22016 Aug 1592016 Aug 15Good1.6160
81P/Wild 22016 Aug 2782016 Aug 31Good1.6560
81P/Wild 22016 Sep 0792016 Sep 07Good1.6760
81P/Wild 22016 Sep 19112016 Sep 17Good1.760
81P/Wild 22016 Oct 06182016 Oct 11Good1.7784
81P/Wild 22017 Aug 14222017 Aug 15Good3.485600
81P/Wild 22018 Jan 13414.155600
88P/Howell2015 Nov 1882015 Nov 18Good2.55500
88P/Howell2015 Dec 21112015 Dec 25Good2.77500
88P/Howell2016 Apr 16112016 Apr 16Good3.4500
88P/Howell2016 Apr 16112016 Apr 16Good3.4500
88P/Howell2016 May 01102016 May 09Good3.51900
88P/Howell2016 May 15122016 May 17Good3.54900
88P/Howell2017 Jan 05212017 Jan 15Good4.425600
103P/Hartley 22015 May 24202015 May 26Unk-5.166500
103P/Hartley 22015 Oct 19212015 Oct 20Unknown-4.626500
103P/Hartley 22016 Jul 10232016 Jul 11OK-3.163300
103P/Hartley 22016 Dec 0472016 Dec 05Good-1.99700
103P/Hartley 22016 Dec 1472016 Dec 14Good-1.92700
103P/Hartley 22016 Dec 2482016 Dec 25Good-1.82700
103P/Hartley 22017 Jan 0472017 Jan 08OK-1.69210
103P/Hartley 22017 Jan 14102017 Jan 14OK-1.64210
C/2012 K12015 Feb 0182015 Feb 07Good2.6460
C/2012 K12015 Feb 1292015 Feb 12Good2.7150
C/2012 K12015 Feb 24112015 Feb 26Good2.86150
C/2012 K12015 Sep 08382015 Sep 24Good5.06500
C/2012 K12016 Jan 23172016 Feb 06Good6.3900
C/2012 K12016 Feb 12202016 Feb 23Good6.461700
C/2012 K12016 Aug 30312016 Sep 06Good8.093300
C/2013 A12015 May 04182015 May 16Good3.03500
C/2013 A12015 May 25192015 May 26Good3.13500
C/2013 A12015 Jun 16182015 Jun 29Good3.47500
C/2013 A12015 Jul 07182015 Jul 20Good3.68500
C/2013 A12015 Jul 28192015 Jul 28Good3.71500
C/2013 A12015 Aug 19212015 Sep 05Good4.15500
C/2013 A12016 Mar 12252016 Apr 04Good6.083300
C/2013 A12016 Jul 15252016 Jul 16Good6.966500
C/2013 US102015 Feb 01152015 Feb 09Good-4.04500
C/2013 US102015 Aug 2382015 Aug 29Good-1.660
C/2013 US102015 Sep 0382015 Sep 06Good-1.4960
C/2013 US102015 Sep 1472015 Sep 14Good-1.3860
C/2013 US102015 Sep 24112015 Sep 27Good-1.2260
C/2013 US102016 Feb 18122016 Feb 23Good1.8960
C/2013 US102016 Mar 04142016 Mar 08Good2.0760
C/2013 US102016 Apr 2882016 Apr 29Good2.7150
C/2013 US102016 May 0972016 May 09Good2.8500
C/2013 US102016 May 1982016 May 20Good3500
C/2013 US102016 May 30102016 May 31Good3.12500
C/2013 US102016 Dec 13212016 Dec 25Good5.335600
C/2013 US102017 Apr 25222017 May 14Good6.625600
C/2013 X12015 May 01342015 May 16Good-4.42500
C/2013 X12015 Dec 23112015 Dec 26Good-2.1260
C/2013 X12016 Feb 1072016 Feb 10Good-1.6860
C/2013 X12016 Feb 2042016 Feb 20Good-1.5960
C/2013 X12016 Feb 2542016 Feb 27Good-1.5360
C/2013 X12016 Jul 1742016 Jul 17Good1.8360
C/2013 X12016 Jul 2342016 Jul 23Good1.8960
C/2013 X12016 Aug 0172016 Aug 01Good1.9760
C/2013 X12016 Oct 0392016 Oct 11Good2.7284
C/2013 X12016 Oct 1582016 Oct 17Good2.7884
C/2013 X12016 Oct 26122016 Oct 30Good2.9284
C/2013 X12017 May 08362017 Jun 10Good4.821400
C/2013 X12017 Sep 16202017 Sep 29Good6.145600
C/2014 Q22015 Feb 14102015 Feb 17Good1.3260
C/2014 Q22015 Feb 2792015 Feb 27Good1.3660
C/2014 Q22015 Mar 11132015 Mar 13Good1.4460
C/2014 Q22015 Jul 21202015 Jul 23Good2.74500
C/2014 Q22015 Aug 13192015 Aug 28Good3.11500
C/2014 Q22015 Sep 04202015 Sep 11Good3.26500
C/2014 Q22015 Sep 27202015 Oct 03Good3.49500
C/2014 Q22015 Oct 20192015 Oct 24Good3.69500
C/2014 Q22015 Nov 11232015 Nov 15Good3.92500
C/2014 Q22016 Jun 26262016 Jun 28Good63300
C/2014 Q22016 Nov 06282016 Nov 08Good7.165600
C/2014 Q32015 Jun 11252015 Jun 28Good3.133300
C/2014 Q32015 Oct 01252015 Oct 04Good46500
C/2015 V22016 Jan 11522016 Feb 27Good-5.493300
C/2015 V22016 May 23252016 May 27Good-4.61500
C/2015 V22016 Jun 20272016 Jul 04Good-4.31500
C/2015 V22017 Jul 1782017 Jul 19Good1.7184
C/2015 V22017 Jul 2872017 Jul 30Good1.7684
C/2015 V22017 Aug 0782017 Aug 11Good1.8384
C/2015 V22017 Aug 1872017 Aug 21Good1.8684
C/2015 V22017 Aug 2882017 Sep 01Good1.9884
C/2015 V22017 Sep 0872017 Sep 10Good2.0384
C/2015 V22017 Sep 18112017 Sep 24Good2.1284
C/2015 V22017 Oct 3182017 Nov 05Scheduled2.4484
C/2015 V22017 Nov 1182017 Nov 12Scheduled2.5484
C/2015 V22017 Nov 2272017 Nov 26Scheduled2.6884
C/2015 V22017 Dec 0282017 Dec 04Scheduled2.7384
C/2015 V22017 Dec 1382.8484
C/2015 V22017 Dec 2482.9484
C/2015 V22018 Jan 0483.0584
C/2015 V22018 Jan 1573.1584
C/2015 V22018 Jan 2583.2584
C/2015 V22018 Feb 05113.3584
C/2015 VL622016 Apr 15342016 May 14Good-5.53300
C/2015 VL622016 Nov 11152016 Nov 12Good-3.98900
C/2015 VL622016 Dec 01152016 Dec 03Good-3.83500
C/2015 VL622017 Mar 03312017 Mar 03Good-3.28700
C/2015 VL622017 Sep 10112017 Sep 10Good2.73210
C/2015 VL622017 Sep 24152017 Sep 30Good2.74210
C/2015 VL622017 Dec 14322.94700
C/2015 VL622018 Jul 04324.125600
C/2016 M12016 Nov 02582016 Nov 08Good-6.652500
C/2016 M12017 Jul 20152017 Jul 28Good-4.561400
C/2016 M12017 Aug 09172017 Aug 13Good-4.431300
C/2016 M12017 Sep 20362017 Sep 28Good-4.06700
C/2016 M12017 Nov 20172017 Dec 03Scheduled-3.63700
C/2016 M12017 Dec 1317-3.45270
C/2016 M12018 Aug 047-2.21108
C/2016 M12018 Aug 1582.21108
C/2016 M12018 Sep 04112.23108
C/2016 M12018 Sep 19102.26108
C/2017 K22017 Aug 01602017 Aug 12Good-15.53700
C/2017 K22017 Dec 01522017 Dec 06Scheduled-152800
C/2017 K22018 Jul 2665-13.72800

Other observations

Observing runs by our team and collaborators at other telescopes.
CometDaterh (AU)LeadTelescopeInstrumentObserved / Scheduled / PlannedFilters / ModeNotes
C/2015 VL622017 Dec 303BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduledV UVW1
C/2015 V22017 Nov 112.5BodewitsSwift UVOTScheduledUVW1 V UGrism
2P/Encke2017 Oct 302.99Knight / ProtopapaDCTLMIObservedr'
C/2015 VL622017 Oct 302.78Knight / ProtopapaDCTLMIObservedr' OH BC RCOH upper limit?
C/2017 K22017 Oct 2415.32KnightDCTLMIObservedr'
88P/Howell2017 Oct 244.84KnightDCTLMIObservedr'poor seeing
22P/Kopff2017 Oct 244.78KnightDCTLMIObservedr'poor seeing
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2017 Oct 242.68KnightDCTLMIObservedr' RC BC
9P/Tempel 12017 Oct 243.62KnightDCTLMIObservedr'
9P/Tempel 12017 Sep 293.51KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'thin cirrus
C/2017 K22017 Sep 2915.33KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'cirrus
2P/Encke2017 Sep 292.77KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'clouds
C/2015 VL622017 Sep 292.74KelleyDCTLMIObservedr' RC BC OHOH upper limit? probably clouds
C/2015 VL622017 Oct 072.75BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduledV UVW1
C/2015 V22017 Sep 102.1Dennerl / BodewitsXMM-NewtonAllScheduledSolar wind, activity, coma structure
C/2015 VL622017 Sep 102.72BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduledV UVW1
C/2015 V22017 Sep 082BodewitsSwift UVOTScheduledUVW1 V UGrism
C/2015 VL622017 Sep 01McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, BC, CN, OHOH is for upper limit
C/2015 VL622017 Aug 28-2.72McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2 CN BC OH UCC2 BC CN photons, gas detections unknown
71P/Clark2017 Aug 191.66McKay / HarrisMagellanMIKEObservedR~60,000R~60,000 for red, 80,000 for blue; detected: CN, C3, [OI]
C/2015 V22017 Aug 191.87McKay / HarrisMagellanMIKEObservedR~60,000R~60,000 for red, 80,000 for blue; detected: CN, C3, CH, [OI]
C/2015 V22017 Jul 281.77BodewitsSwift UVOTScheduledUVW1 V UGrism
C/2015 VL622017 Jul 20-2.75BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduledV UVW1
C/2015 V22017 Jul 151.7Dennerl / BodewitsXMM-NewtonAllScheduledSolar wind, activity, coma structure
2P/Encke2017 Jul 021.97KelleySOARSOIObservedr'
19P/Borrelly2017 Jul 025.21KelleySOARSOIObservedr'
46P/Wirtanen2017 Jul 02-4.29KelleySOARSOIObservedr'Not yet identified
71P/Clark2017 Jul 02-1.59KelleySOARSOIObservedU r'5 epochs
81P/Wild 22017 Jul 023.26KelleySOARSOIObservedg' r' i'
C/2012 K12017 Jul 0210.35KelleySOARSOIObservedr'
C/2013 X12017 Jul 025.34KelleySOARSOIObservedg' r' i'2 epochs
C/2014 Q22017 Jul 029.01KelleySOARSOIObservedr'
C/2015 V22017 Jul 021.66KelleySOARSOIObservedU g' r'
71P/Clark2017 Jun 27-1.59McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2 CN BC OH UCOH detection?
C/2015 V22017 Jun 271.65McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2 CN BC OH UC
C/2015 VL622017 Jun 27-2.74McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2 CN BC OH UCweak gas, probably no OH
2P/Encke2017 Jun 171.8Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr' BC RC
C/2013 A12017 Jun 179.55Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
C/2014 Q22017 Jun 178.89Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
C/2016 M12017 Jun 174.9Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr' BC RC
C/2017 K22017 Jun 17-16.09Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr' BC RC
46P/Wirtanen2017 Jun 16-4.35Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2017 Jun 164.92Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
71P/Clark2017 Jun 16-1.59Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr' BC RC
81P/Wild 22017 Jun 163.17Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr' BC RC
C/2015 V22017 Jun 161.35BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr' OH NH UC CN BC C2 RC
C/2015 VL622017 Jun 16-2.83Farhnam / BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr' OH BC RC
C/2015 V22017 Jun 121.63BodewitsSwift UVOTScheduledUVW1 V UGrism
71P/Clark2017 May 24-1.63McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2 CN BC OH UCOH detection?
C/2015 V22017 May 24-1.66McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2 CN BC OH UCOH detection
C/2015 VL622017 May 22-2.91BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduledV UVW1
71P/Clark2017 May 13-1.65McKayMcDonald 2.7mCoudé SpectrographObserved[OI] lines
C/2015 V22017 May 13-1.69McKayMcDonald 2.7mCoudé SpectrographObserved[OI] lines
C/2015 V22017 May 02-1.73BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V UGrism
71P/Clark2017 Apr 071.77KnightSoarRed GoodmanObservedg' r' i' z'
19P/Borrelly2017 Apr 064.94BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
71P/Clark2017 Apr 061.78BodewitsDCTLMIObservedOH BC RC r'No clear OH photons
88P/Howell2017 Apr 064.6BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2017 Apr 054.67BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
C/2013 A12017 Apr 059.01BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'Weak detection, needs confirmation
C/2015 V22017 Apr 05-1.87BodewitsDCTLMIObservedOH UC BC RC CN C2 g' r'OH detection, three CN and dust epochs over two nights
C/2015 V22017 Mar 29-1.92McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2 CN BC OH UC
C/2015 V22017 Mar 16-1.96BodewitsSwift UVOTScheduledUVW1 V UGrism
10P/Tempel 22017 Mar 083.78KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'non-photometric
19P/Borrelly2017 Mar 084.85KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'non-photometric
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2017 Mar 084.56KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'non-photometric
15P/Finlay2017 Mar 075.55KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'
22P/Kopff2017 Mar 074KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'
71P/Clark2017 Mar 07-1.91KelleyDCTLMIObservedr' BC RC OHOH photons?
C/2013 A12017 Mar 078.8KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'tail, active?
C/2013 US102017 Mar 076.01KelleyDCTLMIObservedr' RC BCcoma
C/2015 V22017 Mar 07-2.08KelleyDCTLMIObservedr' BC RC OHOH photons, tail
C/2016 M12017 Mar 07-5.72KelleyDCTLMIObservedr' BC RCcoma
C/2015 V22017 Feb 232.17BodewitsSwift UVOTScheduledUVW1 V UGrism
2P/Encke2017 Feb 22-0.53McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2 CN BC OH UC
C/2015 V22017 Feb 22-2.18McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2 CN BC OH UC
C/2013 X12017 Feb 124BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduledUVW1, V
C/2013 A12017 Jan 278.5Fitzimmons / KnightINTWFCObservedr'
C/2013 US102017 Jan 275.65Fitzimmons / KnightINTWFCObservedr'
C/2015 V22017 Jan 27-2.4Fitzimmons / KnightINTWFCObservedr'
2P/Encke2017 Jan 25-1.03McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, BC, OH, UCOH, but no BC photons == gassy comet!
C/2015 V22017 Jan 25-2.42McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, BC, OH, UCfaint OH photons, C2 dominated by tail
2P/Encke2017 Jan 19-1.11Cochran / McKayMcDonald 2.7mCoudé SpectrographObservedgas
C/2015 V22017 Jan 15-2.51BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V UGrism
C/2015 VL622017 Jan 15-3.56BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedV UVW1
C/2013 X12017 Jan 033.59BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduledUVW1, V
2P/Encke2016 Dec 29-1.57FeagaDCTLMIObservedr' V BC RC OH CNclouds
10P/Tempel 22016 Dec 293.45FeagaDCTLMIObservedr'clouds
15P/Finlay2016 Dec 295.34FeagaDCTLMIObservedr'clouds
22P/Kopff2016 Dec 293.65FeagaDCTLMIObservedr'clouds
71P/Clark2016 Dec 29-2.32FeagaDCTLMIObservedr' V BC RCclouds
88P/Howell2016 Dec 294.34FeagaDCTLMIObservedr'clouds
C/2013 A12016 Dec 298.2FeagaDCTLMIObservedr'clouds
C/2013 US102016 Dec 295.27FeagaDCTLMIObservedr' V BC RCclouds
C/2015 V22016 Dec 29-2.76FeagaDCTLMIObservedr' V BC RC OH CNclouds
C/2015 VL622016 Dec 29-3.73FeagaDCTLMIObservedr' V BC RCclouds
C/2015 V22016 Dec 22-2.72BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V UGrism
C/2015 V22016 Dec 20-2.75McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, BC, OH, UCsome clouds, detected in all filters except OH
C/2015 V22016 Nov 22-3McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, BC, OH, UCdetected in C2, CN, BC, not detected in UC, OH
C/2013 US102016 Nov 214.99BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduled
C/2015 V22016 Nov 19-3.01BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V UGrism
2P/Encke2016 Nov 05-2.078Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr' RC BCpoint source? trail?
C/2013 US102016 Nov 054.835Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr'coma, tail
C/2016 M12016 Nov 05-6.675Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr'coma, tail
10P/Tempel 22016 Nov 043.238Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr'point source?
22P/Kopff2016 Nov 043.425Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr'jet, tail
C/2013 US102016 Nov 044.825Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr'coma, tail
C/2015 VL622016 Nov 04-4.035Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr'coma, tail; out of focus
C/2012 K12016 Nov 038.54Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr'coma, tail
C/2016 M12016 Nov 03-6.69Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr'coma, tail
22P/Kopff2016 Nov 023.414Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr'jet, tail; not tracking for most frames
88P/Howell2016 Nov 024.205Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr' RC BCcoma, tail
C/2013 US102016 Nov 024.805Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedr' RC BCcoma, tail
C/2015 V22016 Nov 02-3.203Kelley / WoodwardBok 2.3m90PrimeObservedRCcoma, tail; only one image
2P/Encke2016 Oct 09-2.35Knight / SchleicherDCTLMIObservedRcirrus; solid trail detection
C/2015 V22016 Oct 09-3.44Knight / SchleicherDCTLMIObservedCN, BC, RC, Rprobably photometric
2P/Encke2016 Sep 24-2.48KelleyDCTLMIObservedr' RC BCtrail, point source?
C/2012 K12016 Sep 248.23KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'coma
C/2013 US102016 Sep 244.41KelleyDCTLMIObservedr' RC BC OHOH?
C/2014 Q22016 Sep 246.79KelleyDCTLMIObservedr' RC BC
C/2015 VL622016 Sep 24-4.32KelleyDCTLMIObservedr' RC BC
C/2015 V22016 Sep 21-3.59BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V
C/2013 X12016 Sep 202.49BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduledUVW1, V, UGrism
C/2013 US102016 Aug 174BodewitsSwiftUVOTScheduled
C/2013 X12016 Aug 041.99BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V, UGrism, U
C/2013 X12016 Jul 271.92Knight (for H. Hsieh)SOAR 4.1mCCDObservedR, V, Bheavy cirrus
C/2013 X12016 Jul 121.8BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V, UGrism
103P/Hartley 22016 Jul 08-3.18Farnham / KnightDCTCCDObservedRphotometric
103P/Hartley 22016 Jul 07-3.19Farnham / KnightDCTCCDObservedRphotometric
103P/Hartley 22016 Jun 30-3.24Knight / FarnhamDCTCCDObservedRclouds, but field reObserved on Jul 7
C/2013 X12016 Jun 111.59BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V, UGrism
9P/Tempel 12016 Jun 09-1.63McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObserved
C/2013 X12016 Jun 091.5McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObserved
103P/Hartley 22016 Jun 06-3.4Knight / FarnhamDCTCCDObservedRcirrus, but field reObserved on Jul 7
C/2013 X12016 Jun 061.49Knight / FarnhamDCTCCDObservedRcirrus
103P/Hartley 22016 Jun 05-3.4Knight/FarnhamDCTCDObservedRsmoke, but field reObserved on Jul 7
103P/Hartley 22016 Jun 03-3.42Knight / FarnhamDCTCCDObservedRsmoke, but field reObserved on Jul 7
C/2013 X12016 Jun 031.47Knight / FarnhamDCTCCDObservedRsmoke
9P/Tempel 12016 May 28-1.67BodewitsDCTLMIObservedRC, BC, OH, r'OH photons
C/2012 K12016 May 287.26BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'twilight, but detected.
C/2013 A12016 May 286.54BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
C/2013 X12016 May 281.43BodewitsDCTLMIObservedRC, BC, OH,CN, r'OH photons
C/2014 Q22016 May 285.76BodewitsDCTLMIObservedRC, BC, r'
C/2015 V22016 May 28-4.7BodewitsDCTLMIObservedRC, BC, r'
9P/Tempel 12016 May 27-1.68BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr' CNclouds
19P/Borrelly2016 May 273.54BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
81P/Wild 22016 May 27-1.68BodewitsDCTLMIObservedOH, RC, BC, r'OH-filter photons
103P/Hartley 22016 May 27-3.46BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
C/2013 A12016 May 276.53BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
C/2013 X12016 May 271.42BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
C/2015 V22016 May 27-4.69BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr', RC, BC
9P/Tempel 12016 May 26-1.68BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr' CNuncalibrated
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016 May 263.08BodewitsDCTLMIObservedr'
81P/Wild 22016 May 261.68BodewitsDCTLMIObservedOH, CN, RC, BC, r'uncalibrated
C/2013 X12016 May 261.42BodewitsDCTLMIObservedOH, CN, RC, BC, r'OH
C/2014 Q22016 May 265.74BodewitsDCTLMIObservedRC, BC
C/2015 V22016 May 26-4.7BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V
9P/Tempel 12016 May 03-1.78McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UCfaint OH
81P/Wild 22016 May 03-1.77McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UCOH?
C/2013 US102016 May 032.78McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UCHigh airmass, OH upper limit
C/2013 X12016 May 031.33McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2013 X12016 Apr 301.32BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V, UGrism
C/2013 US102016 Apr 102.49BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V, UGrism
9P/Tempel 12016 Apr 07-1.9KnightLowell 42"CCDObservedRheavy cirrus
C/2013 US102016 Apr 072.45KnightLowell 42"CCDObservedR, CNheavy cirrus
9P/Tempel 12016 Apr 06-1.91KnightLowell 42"CCDObservedRheavy cirrus
81P/Wild 22016 Apr 06-1.89KnightLowell 42"CCDObservedRheavy cirrus; CN obtained but not useful due to clouds
C/2013 US102016 Apr 062.44KnightLowell 42"CCDObservedR, CNheavy cirrus
81P/Wild 22016 Apr 011.9McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedOH, UC, CN, C2no BC data
C/2013 US102016 Apr 012.38McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedOH, UC, CN, BC, C2approx. date
C/2013 US102016 Mar 242.27McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedOH, UC, CN, BC, C2
81P/Wild 22016 Mar 202Snodgrass / FitzsimmonsWHTObservedSpectroscopyOH
C/2013 US102016 Mar 202.22Snodgrass / FitzsimmonsWHTObservedSpectroscopyOH
C/2013 US102016 Mar 142.14BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V, UGRISM
9P/Tempel 12016 Mar 102.1McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedOH, UC, CN, BC, C2light cirrus, UC, OH upper limit?
81P/Wild 22016 Mar 102McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedOH, UC, CN, BC, C2light cirrus
C/2013 US102016 Mar 102.09McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedOH, UC, CN, BC, C2light cirrus
9P/Tempel 12016 Feb 121.4KelleyDCTLMIObservedOH, BC, RC, r'OH-filter photons
15P/Finlay2016 Feb 124KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'detected, 2 nights
19P/Borrelly2016 Feb 122.9KelleyDCTLMIObservedBC, RC, r'
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016 Feb 121.5KelleyDCTLMIObservedOH, BC, RC, r'possibly no OH
71P/Clark2016 Feb 123.8KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'detected, 2 nights
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2016 Feb 123.8KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'likely recovered, 1 night
C/2013 A12016 Feb 125.6KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'
C/2013 US102016 Feb 121.73KelleyDCTLMIObservedOH, CN, BC, RC, r'
C/2013 X12016 Feb 12-1.66KelleyDCTLMIObservedOH, BC, RC, r'
C/2014 Q22016 Feb 124.78KelleyDCTLMIObservedBC, RC, r'
C/2015 V22016 Feb 12-5.62KelleyDCTLMIObservedBC, RC, r'
C/2013 US102016 Feb 111.72BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, U, V, UGrism
6P/d'Arrest2016 Feb 103.38KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
C/2013 US102016 Feb 101.71KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, OHphotometric
6P/d'Arrest2016 Feb 093.38KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
81P/Wild 22016 Feb 092.2McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UCOH-filter photons
C/2013 US102016 Feb 091.69KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, OHphotometric
C/2013 US102016 Feb 091.69McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2013 X12016 Feb 09-1.68McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2014 Q22016 Feb 094.76McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, BConly detected in C2
6P/d'Arrest2016 Feb 083.37KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
C/2013 US102016 Feb 081.68KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, OHphotometric
C/2013 X12016 Jan 25-1.82BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVM2, UVW1, UVgrism, V
C/2013 X12016 Jan 19-1.88BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVM2, UVW1, UVgrism, V
C/2013 X12016 Jan 17-1.9BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVM2, UVW1, V
C/2013 X12016 Jan 14-1.93BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVM2, UVW1, UVgrism, V
10P/Tempel 22016 Jan 111.54McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UCUC, OH upper limit?
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016 Jan 112.1McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UCUC, OH upper limit?
81P/Wild 22016 Jan 11-2.37McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UCOH upper limit?
C/2013 US102016 Jan 111.31McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2013 X12016 Jan 11-1.96BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVM2, UVW1, UVgrism, V
C/2013 X12016 Jan 11-1.96McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2013 X12016 Jan 07-2BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVM2, UVW1, UVgrism, V
C/2013 US102016 Jan 041.22VervackIRTFCSHELLObserved
6P/d'Arrest2016 Jan 033.16KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016 Jan 032.04KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
81P/Wild 22016 Jan 03-2.42KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNcirrus
88P/Howell2016 Jan 032.83KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
C/2013 US102016 Jan 031.2KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, C3, OH, CO+, NHcirrus
10P/Tempel 22015 Dec 271.5McKayKeck IHIRESObservedR=67000 spectroscopy
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2015 Dec 272McKayKeck IHIRESObservedR=67000 spectroscopy
81P/Wild 22015 Dec 272.5McKayKeck IHIRESObservedR=67000 spectroscopy
C/2013 US102015 Dec 271.12McKayKeck IHIRESObservedR=67000 spectroscopy
C/2013 X12015 Dec 27-2.11McKayKeck IHIRESObservedR=67000 spectroscopyObserved by Dello Russo the day after
C/2012 K12015 Dec 265.92BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V
6P/d'Arrest2015 Dec 203.1FeagaDCTLMIObservedRuncalibrated (cloudy)
15P/Finlay2015 Dec 203.7FeagaDCTLMIObservedR
19P/Borrelly2015 Dec 202.5FeagaDCTLMIObservedR, V, RC, BC, CN, OHonly R-band calibrated
71P/Clark2015 Dec 204FeagaDCTLMIObservedRunknown status
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 C2015 Dec 204.1FeagaDCTLMIObservedRuncalibrated (cloudy)
C/2013 US102015 Dec 201.04FeagaDCTLMIObservedR, CNCN uncalibrated
C/2015 V22015 Dec 20-6.09FeagaDCTLMIObservedR, V, RC, BCuncalibrated
9P/Tempel 12015 Dec 192.5FeagaDCTLMIObservedR
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2015 Dec 191.9FeagaDCTLMIObservedR, V, RC, BC, CN, OH
71P/Clark2015 Dec 194FeagaDCTLMIObservedRunknown status
81P/Wild 22015 Dec 192.5FeagaDCTLMIObservedR, V, RC, BC, CN, OH
88P/Howell2015 Dec 192.7FeagaDCTLMIObservedR, V, RC, BC, CN, OH
C/2013 A12015 Dec 195.1FeagaDCTLMIObservedR
C/2013 US102015 Dec 191.03FeagaDCTLMIObservedR, V, RC, BC, CN, OH
C/2013 X12015 Dec 19-2.19FeagaDCTLMIObservedR, V, RC, BC, CN, OH
C/2015 V22015 Dec 19-6.09FeagaDCTLMIObservedR, V, RC, BC
6P/d'Arrest2015 Dec 082.99KnightDCTLMIObservedRclouds
88P/Howell2015 Dec 082.67KnightDCTLMIObservedRclouds
C/2013 US102015 Dec 080.92KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNcirrus
6P/d'Arrest2015 Dec 072.99KnightDCTLMIObservedRclouds
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2015 Dec 071.83KnightDCTLMIObservedRclouds
C/2013 A12015 Dec 075.02KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
C/2013 US102015 Dec 070.91KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, OH, CO+cirrs
C/2013 US102015 Dec 070.91VervackIRTFCSHELLObserved
6P/d'Arrest2015 Dec 062.98KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2015 Dec 061.82KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNcirrus
88P/Howell2015 Dec 062.66KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
C/2013 US102015 Dec 060.91KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, OH, CO+cirrus
C/2013 X12015 Dec 06-2.33BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVM2, UVW1, UVgrism, V
C/2013 X12015 Nov 22-2.48McKay / Dello RussoARC 3.5mARCESObservedR=32000 spectroscopy
C/2013 X12015 Nov 21-2.49McKay / Dello RussoARC 3.5mARCESObservedR=32000 spectroscopy
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2015 Nov 161.67McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
88P/Howell2015 Nov 162.53McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2013 X12015 Nov 16-2.54McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2014 Q22015 Nov 163.93McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2013 X12015 Nov 09-2.61BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVGrism, V
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2015 Oct 131.44McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2013 X12015 Oct 13-2.9McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2014 Q22015 Oct 133.58McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedC2, CN, OH, BC, UC
C/2013 X12015 Oct 03-3.01BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V
6P/d'Arrest2015 Sep 242.49KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2015 Sep 241.34KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNphotometric
6P/d'Arrest2015 Sep 232.48KnightDCTLMIObservedRprobably photometric
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2015 Sep 231.34KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNprobably photometric
88P/Howell2015 Sep 232.18KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNprobably photometric
C/2012 K12015 Sep 084.9BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, U, V
2P/Encke2015 Sep 074.1KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'dust trail
81P/Wild 22015 Sep 073.1KelleyDCTLMIObservedr'
88P/Howell2015 Sep 072.1KelleyDCTLMIObservedOH, UC, r'
C/2013 X12015 Sep 07-3.28KelleyDCTLMIObservedOH, UC, r'
C/2014 Q22015 Sep 073.21KelleyDCTLMIObservedOH, UC, r'
C/2013 X12015 Aug 24-3.42BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V
88P/Howell2015 Aug 171.93McKayMcDonald 30"CCDObservedOH, CN, C2, UV, BC
C/2013 US102015 Aug 11-1.85BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, U, V, UGrism
C/2012 K12015 Jun 264.16BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, U, V
22P/Kopff2015 Jun 20-1.99KnightDCTLMIObservedR, OH, RC, BCphotometric
C/2013 A12015 Jun 203.37KnightDCTLMIObservedR, RC, BCphotometric
C/2013 US102015 Jun 19-2.53BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, U, V, UGrism
22P/Kopff2015 Jun 18-2KnightDCTLMIObservedR, OH, RC, BCprobably photometric
46P/Wirtanen2015 Jun 184.82KnightDCTLMIObservedRprobably photometric
103P/Hartley 22015 Jun 18-5.08KnightDCTLMIObservedRprobably photometric, potential non-detection
C/2013 A12015 Jun 183.35KnightDCTLMIObservedR, RC, BCprobably photometric
10P/Tempel 22015 Jun 17-2.05KnightDCTLMIObserved
10P/Tempel 22015 Jun 17-2.05KnightDCTLMIObservedR, RC, BCphotometric
22P/Kopff2015 Jun 17-2.01KnightDCTLMIObserved
22P/Kopff2015 Jun 17-2.01KnightDCTLMIObservedR, OH, RC, BCphotometric
103P/Hartley 22015 Jun 17-5.09KnightDCTLMIObservedRunknown status
C/2013 A12015 Jun 173.34KnightDCTLMIObservedRC, BC
C/2014 Q22015 Jun 172.34KnightDCTLMIObservedOH, RC, BC
C/2014 Q22015 Jun 172.34KnightDCTLMIObservedR, OH, RC, BCphotometric
C/2012 K12015 Jun 114BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, V, UGrism
C/2013 US102015 Apr 28-3.17BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, U, V, UGrism
22P/Kopff2015 Apr 23-2.33SnodgrassNTTCCDObservedr'
C/2013 A12015 Mar 212.44BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, V, UGrism
10P/Tempel 22015 Mar 20-2.6FeagaDCTLMIObserved
22P/Kopff2015 Mar 20-2.54FeagaDCTLMIObservedOH, CN, BC, R
71P/Clark2015 Mar 20-4.58FeagaDCTLMIObservedRunknown status
103P/Hartley 22015 Mar 20-5.35FeagaDCTLMIObservedRunknown status
C/2013 A12015 Mar 202.43FeagaDCTLMIObservedOH, BC, R
C/2014 Q32015 Mar 202.24FeagaDCTLMIObservedR
C/2014 Q22015 Feb 021.29McKayMcDonald 2.7Tull CoudéObservedAlso Feb 3 and 4
C/2013 A12015 Jan 291.94BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, U, V
C/2012 K12015 Jan 252.48BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, U, V, UGrism
C/2014 Q22015 Jan 10-1.33SchmidtFan Mt. 31"Fan CamObservedJ, H, K
C/2012 K12015 Jan 072.27KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNphotometric
C/2014 Q22015 Jan 07-1.34KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, C3, OH, B, Vphotometric
C/2013 X12015 Jan 02-5.67BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V, Ugrism
C/2013 US102014 Dec 19-4.59BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW1, UVM2, V
C/2012 K12014 Dec 162.01BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, V, UGrism
C/2013 A12014 Nov 171.44KelleySpitzerIRACObserved3.6, 4.5
C/2013 US102014 Nov 05-5.04BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVM2, V
C/2013 A12014 Nov 021.4KelleySpitzerIRACObserved3.6, 4.5
C/2012 K12014 Nov 011.49BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, V, UGrism
C/2013 A12014 Oct 23-1.4BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
C/2013 A12014 Oct 20-1.4KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BCprobably not photometrric
C/2013 A12014 Oct 13-1.41BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
81P/Wild 22014 Oct 04-4.54KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
C/2012 K12014 Sep 241.15BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, U, V, UGrism
2P/Encke2014 Sep 213.39KnightDCTLMIObservedRclouds
2P/Encke2014 Sep 203.38KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
C/2013 A12014 Sep 18-1.5BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
2P/Encke2014 Aug 293.27KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
2P/Encke2014 Aug 283.26KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
2P/Encke2014 Aug 273.26KnightDCTLMIObservedRclouds
C/2013 A12014 Aug 19-1.69BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
C/2013 US102014 Aug 14-5.83BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V
C/2013 A12014 Jul 09-2.06BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
C/2012 K12014 Jun 13-1.61BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, V, UGrism
C/2012 K12014 Jun 04 McKayARC 3.5mARCESObservedR=32000 spectroscopy{mckay16-co2}
C/2012 K12014 May 30-1.77Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, B, Vphotometric
C/2013 A12014 May 29-2.46BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
6P/d'Arrest2014 May 28-2.98KnightDCTLMIObservedRsmoke/clouds
C/2012 K12014 May 28-1.79KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNsmoke/clouds
6P/d'Arrest2014 May 27-2.98KnightDCTLMIObservedRsmoke
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2014 May 27-3.98KnightDCTLMIObservedRsmoke
C/2012 K12014 May 27-1.8KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, B, Vsmoke
C/2012 K12014 May 25-1.83McKaySpitzerIRACObserved3.6, 4.5{mckay16-co2}
C/2012 K12014 May 21-1.87Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3probably photometric
C/2012 K12014 May 06-2.05BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, U, V, UGrism{mckay16-co2}
6P/d'Arrest2014 May 04-3.13KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
6P/d'Arrest2014 May 03-3.14KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
C/2012 K12014 May 03-2.08KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNphotometric
6P/d'Arrest2014 May 02-3.14KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
6P/d'Arrest2014 Apr 04-3.31KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
C/2012 K12014 Apr 04-2.43KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNcirrus
6P/d'Arrest2014 Mar 29-3.35KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
C/2012 K12014 Mar 29-2.5KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CNcirrus
6P/d'Arrest2014 Mar 28-3.35KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
C/2012 K12014 Mar 26-2.53BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, V, UGrism
C/2013 A12014 Mar 26-3.12KelleySpitzerIRACObserved3.6, 4.5
C/2013 A12014 Mar 16-3.23BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
C/2012 K12014 Mar 05-2.78BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, V, UGrism
C/2013 A12014 Feb 17-3.49BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
C/2012 K12014 Feb 14-2.99BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, UVW2, V, UGrism
C/2012 K12014 Jan 30-3.16KelleyDCTLMIObservedCN, r'uncalibrated (cloudy)
C/2012 K12014 Jan 01-3.48BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V
C/2013 A12013 Dec 28-4.01BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
2P/Encke2013 Oct 09-1.02Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, OHprobably photometric
2P/Encke2013 Oct 08-1.04Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, OHprobably photometric
2P/Encke2013 Oct 06-1.07KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, C3, OH, RC
2P/Encke2013 Oct 05-1.09KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, C3, OH, RCphotometric
2P/Encke2013 Oct 04-1.1KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, NH, RCphotometric
C/2012 K12013 Oct 04-4.41KnightDCTLMIObservedR, Vphotometric
2P/Encke2013 Oct 03-1.12KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, NH, Vphotometric
81P/Wild 22013 Oct 03-5.24KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
2P/Encke2013 Oct 02-1.14KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, NH, RCphotometric
81P/Wild 22013 Oct 02-5.24KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
2P/Encke2013 Oct 01-1.15KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, NH, RCphotometric
81P/Wild 22013 Oct 01-5.24KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
2P/Encke2013 Sep 30-1.17KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, RCphotometric
81P/Wild 22013 Sep 30-5.24KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, RCphotometric
2P/Encke2013 Sep 13-1.42KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, OH, RCclouds
2P/Encke2013 Sep 12-1.43KnightDCTLMIObservedR, CN, BC, OHphotometric
C/2012 K12013 Aug 07-4.99BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V
C/2012 K12013 Jun 01-5.62BodewitsSwiftUVOTObservedUVW1, V
10P/Tempel 22013 May 03-4.7KnightDCTLMIObservedRphotometric
10P/Tempel 22013 May 01-4.7KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
10P/Tempel 22013 Apr 06-4.71KnightDCTLMIObservedRclouds
10P/Tempel 22013 Apr 04-4.71KnightDCTLMIObservedRcirrus
C/2013 A12013 Feb 11-4.54BodewitsSwift UVOTObservedUVW1 V{bodewits15-css}
10P/Tempel 22013 Jan 134.7KnightDCTLMIObservedRclouds
10P/Tempel 22013 Jan 124.7KnightDCTLMIObservedRclouds
10P/Tempel 22011 Jan 112.3Knight42inNasa42ObservedRcirrus
103P/Hartley 22011 Jan 111.45Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus
10P/Tempel 22011 Jan 092.28Knight42inNasa42ObservedRclouds
103P/Hartley 22011 Jan 091.44Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CNclouds
103P/Hartley 22011 Jan 081.43Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CNclouds
10P/Tempel 22011 Jan 072.27Knight42inNasa42ObservedRclouds
103P/Hartley 22011 Jan 071.42Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
10P/Tempel 22010 Dec 102.1Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus -> clear
103P/Hartley 22010 Dec 101.21Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus
10P/Tempel 22010 Dec 092.09Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CNclouds
103P/Hartley 22010 Dec 091.2Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
10P/Tempel 22010 Nov 071.89Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CNclouds -> clear
103P/Hartley 22010 Nov 071.07Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, RC, NH, UCclouds -> clear
10P/Tempel 22010 Nov 051.88Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus
10P/Tempel 22010 Nov 041.88Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Nov 041.06Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, RC, H2O+, UCcirrus
10P/Tempel 22010 Nov 031.87Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Nov 031.06Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, RC, NH, UCphotometric
10P/Tempel 22010 Nov 021.86Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Nov 021.06Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, RC, NH, UCphotometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Oct 19-1.07Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
10P/Tempel 22010 Oct 171.77Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
103P/Hartley 22010 Oct 17-1.07Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus
10P/Tempel 22010 Oct 161.77Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus -> clear
103P/Hartley 22010 Oct 16-1.07Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus -> clear
10P/Tempel 22010 Sep 131.6Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds -> clear
103P/Hartley 22010 Sep 13-1.23Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds -> clear
10P/Tempel 22010 Sep 121.59Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
103P/Hartley 22010 Sep 12-1.23Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
10P/Tempel 22010 Sep 111.59Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, RCphotometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Sep 11-1.24Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, RCphotometric
10P/Tempel 22010 Sep 101.58Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, RCphotometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Sep 10-1.25Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OHphotometric
10P/Tempel 22010 Sep 091.58Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GCphotometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Sep 09-1.25Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OH, RCphotometric
10P/Tempel 22010 Aug 171.49Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
103P/Hartley 22010 Aug 17-1.43Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CNclouds
10P/Tempel 22010 Aug 161.49Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
103P/Hartley 22010 Aug 16-1.44Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
10P/Tempel 22010 Aug 151.49Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
103P/Hartley 22010 Aug 15-1.45Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
10P/Tempel 22010 Aug 141.48Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3photometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Aug 14-1.46Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GCphotometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Aug 13-1.47Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BC, C3photometric
10P/Tempel 22010 Jul 191.43Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CN, BCprobably photometric
103P/Hartley 22010 Jul 19-1.68Knight42inNasa42ObservedR, CNprobably photometric
10P/Tempel 22010 Jun 12-1.44Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
81P/Wild 22010 Jun 121.92Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
10P/Tempel 22010 Jun 11-1.44Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
81P/Wild 22010 Jun 111.91Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
81P/Wild 22010 Jun 101.91Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
10P/Tempel 22010 May 15-1.52Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
81P/Wild 22010 May 151.79Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCclouds
10P/Tempel 22010 May 13-1.53Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus
81P/Wild 22010 May 131.78Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus
10P/Tempel 22010 Apr 17-1.64Knight42in?ObservedRphotometric
81P/Wild 22010 Apr 171.68Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GC, OHphotometric
81P/Wild 22010 Apr 091.66Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, OH, GCphotometric
81P/Wild 22010 Apr 081.66Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, OHphotometric
10P/Tempel 22010 Mar 14-1.82Knight42in?ObservedRphotometric
81P/Wild 22010 Mar 141.61Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
81P/Wild 22010 Mar 131.61Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GCphotometric
10P/Tempel 22010 Mar 12-1.83Knight42in?ObservedRphotometric
81P/Wild 22010 Mar 121.61Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GCphotometric
81P/Wild 22010 Feb 17-1.6Knight42in?ObservedR, CN? (taken by Mandushev)
81P/Wild 22010 Feb 15-1.6Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GCcirrus
81P/Wild 22010 Feb 14-1.6Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GCphotometric
81P/Wild 22010 Feb 13-1.6Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GCphotometric
81P/Wild 22009 Dec 16-1.74Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3cirrus
81P/Wild 22009 Nov 16-1.86Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3photometric
22P/Kopff2009 Nov 152.27Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus then photometric
81P/Wild 22009 Nov 15-1.87Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3photometric
22P/Kopff2009 Oct 232.13Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
81P/Wild 22009 Oct 23-1.98Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Oct 222.13Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCcirrus
81P/Wild 22009 Oct 22-1.99Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Oct 212.12Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
81P/Wild 22009 Oct 21-2Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Sep 181.94Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, C3, BC, C2, GCprobably not photometrric
22P/Kopff2009 Sep 171.93Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, C3cirrus
22P/Kopff2009 Sep 161.93Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, C2, GCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Sep 151.92Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, UC, C2, GCprobably photometric
22P/Kopff2009 Aug 281.83Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, UCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Aug 271.83Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3photometric
22P/Kopff2009 Aug 261.82Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, C3, OH, UCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Jul 301.71Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, RCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Jul 291.7Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, RCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Jun 231.6Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, RCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Jun 221.6Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, RCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Jun 211.6Knight42in?ObservedR, CN, BC, RCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Apr 23-1.61Knight42inSITEObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Mar 28-1.68Knight42inSITEObservedR, CN, BCphotometric
22P/Kopff2009 Feb 27-1.8Knight42inSITEObservedRcirrus
6P/d'Arrest2009 Feb 022.25Knight42inSITEObservedRphotometric but close to moon
19P/Borrelly2009 Feb 022.43Knight42inSITEObservedRphotometric
19P/Borrelly2009 Feb 012.42Knight42inSITEObservedRphotometric
6P/d'Arrest2009 Jan 312.23Knight42inSITEObservedRphotometric
19P/Borrelly2009 Jan 312.42Knight42inSITEObservedRphotometric
6P/d'Arrest2009 Jan 302.22Knight42inSITEObservedRphotometric
19P/Borrelly2009 Jan 302.41Knight42inSITEObservedRphotometric
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2009 Jan 30-1.3Knight42inSITEObservedRphotometric
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 31970 Jan 01-2.16KnightKPNO 2.1SQIIDObservedJHKduring close approach

Although not directly related to our Spitzer project, it is worth noting that many, many, many 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observations are being taking in support of the Rosetta Mission.

References

  1. T. Ootsubo, et al. 2012, AKARI Near-infrared Spectroscopic Survey for CO2 in 18 Comets. The Astrophysical Journal 752, 15.
  2. D. Osip, D. Schleicher, and R. Millis 1992, Comets - Groundbased observations of spacecraft mission candidates. Icarus 98, 115.
  3. M. A'Hearn et al. 1995, The ensemble properties of comets: Results from narrowband photometry of 85 comets, 1976-1992. Icarus 118, 223.
  4. L. Jorda, J. Crovisier, and D. Green 2008, The Correlation Between Visual Magnitudes and Water Production Rates. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2008, 8046.
  5. U. Fink 2009, A taxonomic survey of comet composition 1985-2004 using CCD spectroscopy. Icarus 201, 311.
  6. Z. Sekanina 1988, Outgassing asymmetry of periodic comet Encke. I - Apparitions 1924-1984. The Astronomical Journal 95, 911.
  7. D. Schleicher 2007, Deep Impact's target Comet 9P/Tempel 1 at multiple apparitions: Seasonal and secular variations in gas and dust production. Icarus 190, 406.
  8. M. Knight et al. 2012, A Quarter-century of Observations of Comet 10P/Tempel 2 at Lowell Observatory: Continued Spin-down, Coma Morphology, Production Rates, and Numerical Modeling. The Astronomical Journal 144, 153.
  9. D. Schleicher, L. Woodney, and R. Millis 2003, Comet 19P/Borrelly at multiple apparitions: seasonal variations in gas production and dust morphology. Icarus 162, 415.
  10. F. Moreno et al. 2012, Comet 22P/Kopff: Dust Environment and Grain Ejection Anisotropy from Visible and Infrared Observations. The Astrophysical Journal 752, 136.
  11. D. Schleicher 2006, Compositional and physical results for Rosetta's new target Comet 67P/Churyumov Gerasimenko from narrowband photometry and imaging. Icarus 181, 442.
  12. D. Schleicher and A. Bair 2011, The Composition of the Interior of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3: Results from Narrowband Photometry of Multiple Components. The Astronomical Journal 141, 177.
  13. W. Reach, M. Kelley, and J. Vaubaillon 2013, Survey of cometary CO2, CO, and particulate emissions using the Spitzer Space Telescope. Icarus 226, 777.

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