#### ASTR 620 Galaxies Problem Set 4Due in class Wednesday 26 November 2003

1. Local Dark Matter Density

Binney & Tremaine 10-4

[The Oort limit is the mass density in the solar neighborhood.]

2. Tully-Fisher

Derive the Tully-Fisher relation from the Virial Theorem.
Be sure to state explicitly any necessary assumptions (about M/L, for example).

Does it make sense that galaxies of the same luminosity but very different scale length fall on the same Tully-Fisher relation?

3. Rotation Curves

A. Exponential Disks

In the first problem set, you found an expression for the enclosed luminosity L(R) of an exponential disk. Assuming M/L is constant with radius and making the fudge of "spherical" disks, use this expression to compute and plot V(R) for an exponential disk.
The actual rotation curve of a thin disk is given by BT eqn. 2-169. Plot this on the same diagram to see how close the spherical approximation comes.
You may like to have this tabulation.
[It'd be nice to have a version of this which is more finely sampled at small radii.]

B. Dark Matter Halos

Real disks are only approximately exponential, and their asymptotically flat rotation curves are usually interpreted to require extended halos of dark matter. Two forms of halo are generally considered: isothermal halos with constant density cores, and "NFW" halos motivated by numerical simulations of structure formation (BM eqns 8.57 & 8.58, respectively).

What do these density profiles imply for the total halo mass?

Derive the circular speed V(R) of a test particle orbiting in these mass distributions.
[Hint: dark matter halos can be presumed to be spherical.]
How do the shapes of these rotation curves compare?

C. Mass Models

Acquire the rotation curve data for the galaxy NGC 2998.
[TIP: Delete the first line of this file (the one that is all zeros) or the fitting programs will choke.]

First, subtract off the rotation due to the luminous stars and gas. Do this for two choices of the stellar mass-to-light ratio: a) that given in the data file, and b) M/L = 1.0 for both bulge and disk components. Whatever is left we call dark matter.

Fit isothermal and NFW halos to the dark matter for this galaxy. You may write your own code, or use the crude fortran versions here: isothermal halo code | NFW halo code.
Negelected to mention in class: for the NFW halo, x = R/R200.

Plot the results for both halo types for both assumptions about M/L. Plot the original data together with lines for each of the mass components and the sum of all mass components. What are the best fit halo parameters? Do these appear to mean anything? How good are the fits? Can you distinguish between
• halo types?
• M/L choices?

To get some feel for how the various parameters behave, check out Mihos's Rotation Curve JavaLab

4. Galaxy Mergers

Use the Galaxy Crash JavaLab of Chris Mihos to do this problem.
This JavaLab is pretty self-explanatory. To get it to run, click on "APPLET" (at upper left). This will bring up a window with 2 spiral galaxies and a bunch of controls. Play around with the applet and its controls to get a feel for what it does. This runs best on a PC. Some of the controls:

 Control Theta Phi Peri Red Galaxy Mass Number of Stars Friction Big Halos Function Inclination Angle of each galaxy Orientation Angle of each galaxy Distance of Closest Approach In terms of the Green Galaxy Number of simulated points Dynamical Drag between Particles Extent of unseen dark matter

Under the LAB link, you will find several exercises. Do:

A. Tidal Tails

B. Dark Halos

C. Use Galcrash to investigate a problem of your own choosing.
Tell me what question you were interested in, and what you found out.