1. List the 9 planets in our solar system in order from closest to farthest from the sun:
The First Discoveries About Earth and Sky (Chapter 2)
2. True/False: The Zenith is the point directly overhead.
3. True/False: The North Star (Polaris) was not at the celestial north pole when the Egyptians built the pyramids.
4. True/False: The North Star can never be seen from the southern hemisphere.
5. Stars which do not appear to set are called ________________________ stars.
6. True/False: The path the sun travels with respect to the stars is called the ecliptic.
7. How many signs of the Zodiac are there?
8. The Greeks were able to deduce that the earth was round by
9. ______ eclipses occur much more frequently.
10. What is the small-angle equation?
11. Which of these things can the small angle equation not be used to measure:
12. How long is the moon above the horizon each day?
13. How long after rising is the moon highest in the sky?
14. If the moon is new when it rises what phase will it be in when it sets?
15. What time does the full moon rise?
16. What time does the first quarter moon set?
17. T/F: The Earth’s seasons are caused by the elliptical nature of its orbit around the sun.
18. T/F: The Earth’s seasons are caused by the tilt of its axis.
The Copernican Revolution (Chapter 3)
19. Define retrograde motion.
20. _______________ ’s theory stated that the Earth was at the center of the solar system.
21. T/F: Copernicus proposed the heliocentric model for the solar system.
22. T/F: The phenomenon which occurs when you hold your thumb at arm’s length and it just covers the moon is called parallax.
23. What is Kepler’s law of planetary motion relating period (P) to semimajor axis (a)?
24. According to Kepler’s laws, a planet which is farther from the sun will take __________ than a planet which is closer to the sun to complete one orbit.
25. Using Kepler’s law, a planet which has a semimajor axis (a) of 4 AU will have a period of how many years?
26. T/F: According to Kepler’s laws, planets travel in ellipses with the Earth at one focus.
27. T/F: in addition to viewing the 6 planets visible with the naked eye (including Earth), Galileo able to view Uranus with his telescope.
28. What is Newton’s universal law of gravity?
29. According to Newton’s universal law of gravity, as the radius (R) increases, the force
30. According to Newton’s universal law of gravity, as the mass (M) increases, the force
31. If the force of gravity doubles, your mass
32. The distance from the Earth to the Sun is defined as how many Astronomical Units (AU’s)?
The Earth-Moon System (Chapter 5)
33. The Earth is believed to be approximately how many years old?
34. The most common element used for radioative dating human settlements is
35. T/F: The process by which heavier minerals move away from the core of a body is called differentiation.
36. If a tunnel were cut from the surface of the Earth to its center, one would encounter these in the following order:
37. T/F: Plate tectonics is causing the Himalayas to grow taller each year as the Indian sub-continent is slowly pushed into and under the Eurasian continent.
38. T/F: The “ring of fire” traces the plate boundaries at the rim of the Atlantic Ocean.
39. Scientists have found evidence of a giant impact crater in the Yucatan which caused
40. Most of earth’s oxygen came from
41. T/F: the ozone layer blocks most of the harmful UV rays from reaching Earth’s surface.
42. The increase in which gas in the Earth’s atmosphere is most responsible for the greenhouse effect?
43. During what phase(s) of the moon are tides on Earth the strongest?
44. During what phase(s) of the moon are tides on Earth the weakest?
The Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 6)
45. What are the 4 terrestrial planets?
46. Which terrestrial planet has no atmosphere?
47. Which terrestrial planet was first thought to have “canals”?
48. Which terrestrial planet has free oxygen in its atmosphere?
49. If Earth experienced a runaway greenhouse effect, it would most closely resemble which terrestrial planet?
50. Which terrestrial planet(s) exhibit phases when viewed from Earth?
51. The meteorite ALH84001, which gained notoriety in 1996 when scientists claimed to have found the first record of life from beyond earth is believed to have originated from which terrestrial planet?
52. T/F: Mercury’s 88 day “year” and 59 day “day” are due to tidal forces and resonances.
53. T/F: Venus’ atmosphere is about 96 percent nitrogen.
54. The surface temperature on Venus is about
55. The surface pressure on Venus is _______ than the surface pressure on Earth.
56. T/F: The surface age of Venus is fairly uniform and much older than anywhere on Earth.
57. T/F: Mars has no polar ice caps.
58. T/F: The highest mountain on Mars, Olympus Mons, rises about twice as high as Mt. Everest, the highest mountain on Earth.
59. T/F: Even though there is currently no liquid water on the surface of Mars, there is evidence of past flows of water.
60. The rate of impact craters forming on a surface _________ with time.
1. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
10. a / 206,265 = d / D
12. 12 hours
13. 6 hours
15. 6 p.m.
19. The occasional (and temporary) reversal of a planet's motion among the stars to move from east to west; can occur only for planets beyond Earth's orbit and is most noticeable for Mars.
23. P2 µ A3
28. F = (G*m1*m2) / r2
45. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
50. Mercury and Venus